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Progressive Overload: The Foundation To Building Muscle

March 06, 2024

Progressive overload article by Robor Fitness

Whether you're looking to build muscle, get stronger, lose fat, or improve performance in any sporting discipline, there is one training principle you MUST be aware of – Progressive Overload. It's the cornerstone that underpins every progress we make in our training. Think about your journey in the gym; if you've seen progress, you've been applying progressive overload, often without even realizing it.

But here's the kicker: understanding progressive overload can be a game-changer. It equips you with the knowledge to incorporate it into your workouts intentionally. And let's be honest, who doesn't want to maximize their gains?

By grasping the essence of progressive overload, you're setting the stage for more effective, goal-smashing workouts. So, let's dive in and unlock the full potential of your training regime!


What Is Progressive Overload

As the name suggests, progressive overload means to overload your muscles progressively. But wait, that sounds like I'm just repeating the term with some wordplay, right? Let's break it down more clearly.

Progressive overload is the art of increasing the demands on our bodies during workouts over time. This concept relies on our body's fantastic ability to adapt. Think back to when you first started working out - remember how tough it felt? Your muscles were like, "What in the world is happening?" But, as you persisted, your body adapted, growing stronger and possibly bigger, preparing itself to handle this new level of exertion.

However, if we get stuck in a routine, doing the same exercises with the same intensity, our body hits the snooze button. It's already adapted to that level, so why bother changing? That's why you might see folks in the gym who are religious about their 5-exercise routine but look the same year after year. Their bodies have no incentive to change because they can easily handle the current workload.

The key is gradually turning up the difficulty dial on your workouts, compelling your body to keep up. It's like a constant game of challenge and response. Like expensive real estate, our bodies are stingy when holding onto muscle mass. Your body won't bother investing if there's no need for it. 

Increasing your workouts' intensity progressively gives your body a solid reason to build and maintain those bigger, stronger muscles. So, let's ditch the plateau and keep climbing that mountain of progress!


How To Apply Progressive Overload To Your Training

So, how do we apply progressive overload to our training? That's a golden question with a treasure trove of answers. There isn't a one-size-fits-all approach here – it's more like trying on different hats to see which one looks best on you. What sends one person's gains through the roof might make another feel like they're lifting feathers.

Now, the key to a successful training plan? One word: adherence. It's like eating your favorite pizza – you'll enjoy it and stick to it (well, maybe not too much pizza if fat loss is the goal!). But imagine if every meal was something you disliked; you'd be eyeing the exit door before you even start. The same goes for training plans. If it feels like a chore, you'll plan your gym breakup party sooner than you think.

Remember, whether it's building muscle, shedding fat, sprinting faster, or lifting heavier, it's a marathon, not a sprint. The best strategy is to tailor progressive overload to your lifestyle, preferences, and goals. This way, it becomes a part of your routine, not a dreaded task.

And while we're on the subject, let's not forget the fuel for our fitness journey.

Building muscle in an energy-intensive process, we should therefore be eating in a calorie surplus (don’t worry if you don’t know what that is, we have covered it in depth here: “How much should I be eating to build muscle?”).

Similarly, if we’re looking to get leaner and lose body fat we need to be in a slightly calorie-restricted diet known as a calorie deficit. We have also covered this in-depth in a separate article: “How much should I be eating to lose fat?”.

After all, you wouldn't put low-grade fuel in a high-performance racecar, right? The same logic applies to your body. Fueling it correctly is part of the progressive overload equation – challenging your muscles in the gym and feeding them out of it to achieve your desired result.

So let's dive into some methods to spice up your training routine, keeping it challenging and fun – like adding hot sauce to your favorite meal!


Increase the Resistance

Barbell and weights

First, let's tackle the most straightforward method of progressive overload: increasing the resistance. It's like leveling up in a video game – as you get stronger, the challenges get tougher. The logic here is simple: gradually increasing your lifting weights, you're on a surefire path to building muscle and gaining strength.

Imagine you're at the start of your lifting journey, squatting 30kg for eight reps. Fast forward six months, and you're now squatting 60 kilograms for the same reps. Congratulations, you've just given your muscles a reason to grow stronger and bigger!

This principle isn't limited to squats – it applies to every lift. Whether it's bench presses, deadlifts, or bicep curls, the rule is the same: if you can lift heavier weights, maintain the same number of reps, and keep your form as sharp as a chef's knife, then muscle growth isn't just a possibility – it's a certainty. It's like asking if the sun will rise tomorrow; your muscles will respond!


Increase Volume

Increasing volume is next in line for progressive overload, and there are two ways to pump up this volume – and no, we're not talking about blasting your favorite tunes in the gym! We can either increase the number of reps or the number of sets.

Let's say you set a rep range of 10-12 for three sets. Choose a weight where you're starting at ten reps. Your sets might look like you're just getting the hang of a new dance move:

  • Set 1: 10 reps
  • Set 2: 10 reps
  • Set 3: 9 reps

Each week, like a dedicated DJ working on a mix, aim to increase the number of reps until you hit that sweet spot of 3 sets of 12 reps. It's like leveling up in a video game, but stronger muscles are the prize. And don't rush it – this could take months, like waiting for your favorite band to release a new album.

Once you hit those 3 sets of 12 reps, it's time to increase the weight, dropping back to 10 reps. Congratulations, you've just reset the game to a higher difficulty! Keep repeating this cycle, and you'll be the master of increasing volume, turning the dial up on your fitness goals.


Increase the Frequency

Workout calendar

Increasing the frequency of training a specific muscle group is like giving your muscles more opportunities to shine on stage. It's not about cramming an extra workout into your week as if trying to fit an extra episode into your nightly Netflix binge. It's more about getting creative with how you schedule your muscle rendezvous.

Let's say you're on the traditional "bro split," where each muscle group has its special day, like a solo performance. But what if we remix this routine? Switching to a training split like push/pull/legs or upper/lower can be like forming a band where each member gets to play twice a week instead of once.

These popular training splits are like the hit playlists of the fitness world. They allow you to train each muscle group more frequently – hitting each muscle twice a week, doubling their chances to grow stronger and more defined. It's like giving your muscles a VIP pass to the gym, ensuring they get enough stage time to show their progress. So, by tuning into these training splits, you're not just working out more; you're working out smarter, making every rep count double.


Introduce Advanced Training Principles

Introducing advanced training principles is like adding secret ingredients to your workout recipe. They spice things up and bring a whole new flavor to your routine. Let's talk about some of these techniques:

Supersets: This is like a back-to-back double feature at the movies. You perform two exercises consecutively with no rest in between. It's a time-efficient way to ramp up the intensity if you’re stuck for time.

Drop Sets: Think of this as a countdown. You start with a heavier weight; when you hit fatigue, you drop to a lighter weight and keep going. It's like a video game boss battle - as soon as you think you've won, there's a second round waiting for you.

Partials (Partial Reps): Here, you're only performing a portion of the whole movement, like a teaser of a much-awaited movie. It's great for targeting specific muscle lengths or overcoming a sticking point.

Slow Negatives: Imagine time slowing down in an action movie - that's what you do with your weights. You slow down the lowering phase of the lift, turning gravity into your gym nemesis.

These techniques should be used judiciously. They're not for every set of every workout, but sprinkled in here and there, they can add a challenging and enjoyable twist to your routine.

They're tools in your toolbox - powerful but best used with a strategy. After all, you wouldn't use a sledgehammer to crack a nut, right? Use these advanced techniques to smartly and effectively apply progressive overload and watch your muscles respond with a standing ovation!


Decrease Rest Times


This one decides how long to marinate your steak - depending on your desired result. Decreasing rest times between sets can be a tasty way to keep the progress sizzling, especially if your goals are more endurance-based or if you're on a mission to lose fat.

Think of it as fast-forwarding through the commercials. Less downtime means your heart rate stays elevated, turning your workout into a calorie-burning fiesta. It's perfect for those who want to build stamina or slim down.

However, if your dream is to bulk up and become stronger, there might be better strategies than shortening rest periods. It's like trying to sprint a marathon – you might start strong, but you'll be out of juice when it counts.

For muscle and strength gains, you want to give your muscles a proper pause, like a power napper recharging for the next big set. This way, you're ready to hit each set with the vigor of a superhero leaping into action, ensuring you're not just lifting weights but lifting them like a boss. So, tailor your rest times like you'd tailor a suit – perfectly fitted to your goals.


Progressive Overload Tips

Embarking on a journey of progressive overload is like setting sail on a voyage of fitness discovery. But even the most adventurous explorers need a map. That's where these nifty progressive overload tips come in. Think of them as your trusty compass, guiding you through the vast ocean of workout possibilities.

These tips ensure you're working hard and smart, maximizing your gains while keeping your workouts fresh and enjoyable. So, let's dive into these pearls of wisdom, ensuring your fitness journey is successful, sustainable, and injury-free.


Record Your Workouts

Fitness journal and pen

Recording your workouts is like keeping a treasure map of your fitness journey. It's one of the most effective strategies to apply progressive overload effectively. You set a clear target for improvement in your next session by tracking what you accomplished last week. It's like having a personal scoreboard, showing you where you're winning and where you can push a bit harder.

There's a whole spectrum of ways to log your workouts. Some prefer the old-school charm of a pen and notepad, scribbling down achievements like a fitness journal. Others might opt for the digital convenience of the Notes app on their phone, tapping away between sets. And then there are those who lean towards specialized apps like Strong, turning their workout tracking into a high-tech affair.

The medium you choose is like picking your favorite workout playlist - it's all about personal preference. The key is to record your workouts in some form. I've been training for over a decade and saw the most gains in the years I diligently recorded my workouts. It truly is a game-changer for your training.

There's a saying that goes, "What gets measured gets managed." This couldn't be more true in the context of fitness. By recording your workouts, you're not just jotting down numbers; you're mapping out a path to your goals, one rep at a time. So, grab that pen, phone, or app, and start charting your course to success!


Master Form and Maintain It

Maintaining the correct form in each exercise is like having a solid foundation for your fitness house. Without it, everything else can come tumbling down. As we've emphasized, progress in training is a marathon, not a sprint, and staying injury-free is crucial for continuous improvement. An injury is like a roadblock on your fitness highway, potentially causing a pause and a regression in your gains.

When you perform exercises with proper form, you're not just working out; you're fortifying your body's defenses against injuries. This becomes even more critical as you attempt to progress in your lifts. Venturing into new territory with heavier weights or more reps demands respect for your body's mechanics.

Here's a golden rule: never sacrifice form to lift heavier. Imagine you're a sculptor working on a masterpiece; you wouldn’t rush with the details to finish sooner. The goal is to enhance your lifts while maintaining the rock-solid form you had the previous week. Think of it this way - if you do 10 reps one week with impeccable form, but the next week you manage 11 reps with sloppy technique, that's not progress; that's cutting corners.

Keep your form solid as a rock, and watch how the progress naturally follows. It's about building strength, not just in your muscles but also in your discipline and technique. Remember, in the fitness world, how you lift is just as important as what you lift.


Change One Variable at a Time

Applying progressive overload is like adjusting the dials on a high-precision machine – changing one variable at a time. The variables we're talking about include those we've discussed earlier: increasing resistance, increasing volume, increasing frequency, decreasing rest times, or employing advanced training techniques.

Choosing one variable and focusing on applying it to your workouts is essential. Trying to juggle multiple changes at once is like spinning too many plates; eventually, one will crash. For instance, you can't expect to lift a heavier weight for more reps immediately – it's a choice between one or the other.

It's like experimenting in a lab. You need to test out which progressive overload method resonates best with your body and stick with it. Interestingly, research indicates similar gains between individuals who focus on increasing resistance and those who increase volume.

A study in the National Library of Medicine highlights this point, suggesting that whether you add more weight or do more reps, the road to muscle gains can vary, but the destination remains the same (1).

So, take it one step at a time; consistency is vital. Like a chef perfecting a recipe, it's all about finding the suitable ingredient to add at the right time.


Have Realistic Expectations

Having realistic expectations in your fitness journey is like understanding that Rome wasn't built in a day. It's crucial to acknowledge that you can't expect to progress in every set, every week. This isn't a sign of failure; it's a natural part of the process. Just like a plant doesn't grow overnight, your muscles need time to respond to the training stimuli.

Fitness progress is a long-term game, often taking months to manifest visibly. Setting realistic expectations is not just sensible; it's essential for maintaining motivation. Expecting significant changes or improvements quickly can lead to disappointment and demotivation.

Think of your training as a journey with ups and downs rather than a straight upward trajectory. Some weeks, you might feel like a superhero, lifting more than ever, and other weeks, just maintaining your current level can be a victory.

Remember, the key to long-term success in fitness is persistence and patience. Celebrate the small victories, learn from the setbacks, and keep your eyes on the long-term goals. This mindset keeps you grounded and ensures a sustainable and enjoyable fitness journey.


Benefits Of Progressive Overload

The benefits of progressive overload are colossal, a true game-changer in fitness. It's the golden ticket to making strides in your training journey. Whether your goal is to get bigger, stronger, leaner, faster, or more powerful, progressive overload is your trusty roadmap.

Think of it as the secret ingredient in your fitness recipe. Just like a chef relies on salt to enhance the flavors of a dish, progressive overload is the element that amplifies your workouts. It's the essence of why we train: to see tangible, satisfying progress in our physical abilities.

This principle isn't just another workout trend; it's the backbone of effective training. It's like the gravitational force in the universe of fitness – everything revolves around it. By systematically increasing the demands on your musculoskeletal system, you're essentially coaxing your body into evolving and adapting to handle these new challenges. This improves muscle size, strength, endurance, and overall fitness.

Progressive overload is not just an option; it's necessary for anyone serious about their training goals. It's what separates those who see actual results from those who spin their wheels. Apply it consistently, and you're on a path to achieving your training aspirations, turning your fitness dreams into reality.


Limitations of Progressive Overload

When applied correctly, progressive overload is like a well-oiled machine, driving your fitness journey forward smoothly. However, as with any powerful tool, it's not without potential drawbacks, especially when not used correctly. A lot of these limitations stem from poor programming and a lack of experience, leading to a few common pitfalls:



When you're constantly pushing your body's limits in pursuit of fitness goals, allowing enough time for recovery is as crucial as training. This concept is beautifully illustrated by the SRA (Stimulus, Recovery, Adaptation) curve, a fundamental principle in understanding how our bodies respond to exercise.

  • Stimulus: This is your workout, the part where you challenge your muscles. It's like setting off a spark in a fireplace – the initial action that starts the whole process.
  • Recovery: After the stimulus, your body needs time to recover. Think of it as the firewood absorbing the heat of the spark. This phase is when your body repairs and rejuvenates itself.
  • Adaptation: Following recovery, adaptation occurs. This is where the magic happens, and your body becomes stronger, building itself up to handle similar stress in the future. It's like the firewood finally catching fire and burning brightly.

Neglecting the recovery and adaptation phases is like expecting that fire to burn without giving the wood time to catch. Not only does it hinder your progress, but it also opens the door to overtraining.

Overtraining is more than just excessive tiredness; it's a state where you've pushed past your body's ability to recover, leading to decreased performance, persistent fatigue, and even injury.

It's essential to tune in to your body's signals. If your muscles are sore or you're feeling exhausted, sometimes taking an extra rest day is the wisest choice. It's like giving your firewood more time to dry out – it'll burn all the brighter when it's ready.

By respecting the SRA curve and listening to your body, you ensure that your training leads to growth, not burnout. Remember, fitness progress is a marathon, not a sprint; sometimes, the fastest way forward is to take a step back and rest.



Women receiving treatment for injury

Venturing into uncharted territory with your body increases the risk of injury. It's like exploring a dense forest; each step takes you somewhere new and unfamiliar. Every week, as you aim to lift a heavier weight or squeeze out an extra repetition, you're doing something your body still needs to adapt to fully. It's a delicate balancing act between pushing your limits and respecting your current capabilities.

Maintaining solid form in every exercise with each set is the key to minimizing the risk of injury. It's like building a house; you want a strong, stable foundation to support the structure as it grows. You're looking to progress in your exercises, but crucially, with the same solid form each week. Compromising your form to achieve an extra rep is like taking a shortcut on a hike – it might get you there faster, but the risk of stumbling increases.

Remember, the aim of the game isn't to simply lift heavier or do more reps at any cost. It's about sustainable progression. Being lax with your form in pursuit of these goals is like ignoring warning signs on a trail – it might lead to an injury.

Consistency in form is your safety harness in this journey of fitness. By focusing on maintaining quality in every movement, you're not just working towards your goals but ensuring you can reach them without unnecessary setbacks.



Fitness progress is a journey, not an overnight sensation. It's like planting a garden; you can't rush the growth of the plants. Each week, the goal is to progress in some aspect of your lifts, in weight, volume, or another variable. However, managing your expectations and understanding that you won't see improvements in every lift every week is crucial.

Setting realistic expectations is like having a compass on this journey. It helps maintain your motivation, especially on days when progress seems elusive. Even if you have yet to add weight to the bar or manage an extra rep, you still need to move forward. Fitness progress is sometimes linear; it's a winding path with ups and downs.

If a workout doesn't go as planned and you don't progress in a lift, it's not a reason to be disheartened. Instead, think of it as a learning opportunity. It's like missing a shot in basketball – you analyze, adjust, and try again. Remember, being unable to progress every week is normal and part of the process.

Consistency and perseverance are key. Like a sculptor chipping away at a block of marble, your efforts will gradually reveal the masterpiece within. Stay patient, stay motivated, and trust the process. The results, though not immediate, will be worth the wait.


The Said Principle

We'll briefly touch on the SAID principle here, but for a deeper dive, check out our other article dedicated to this topic.

SAID stands for Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands. In simple terms, it means your body will adapt specifically to whatever demands you place on it. If you're lifting heavy weights, your muscles grow stronger and larger to handle this specific challenge. If you're focusing on endurance, like running or cycling, your body adapts to increase stamina and efficiency.

The key takeaway from the SAID principle is that adaptation is precise to your training type. It's like training for a specific role in a play; you hone the skills needed for that character, not just any character.

So, when designing your workout regime, aligning it closely with your specific fitness goals is crucial. This principle reminds us that if we want to see improvements in a particular area, our training must be tailored to provoke these specific adaptations.


The Final Say

Progressive overload isn't just a component of your training program – it's the bedrock upon which all successful training is built. It's the guiding principle ensuring every gym sweat, lift, and step propels you closer to your goals.

Remember, training is a journey of continuous improvement, not a sprint to the finish line. By applying progressive overload strategically and consistently, you set yourself up for long-term success. It's about challenging your body just enough to stimulate growth and adaptation while respecting its limits to prevent injury and burnout.

Embrace progressive overload as your fitness compass, guiding you through the diverse landscape of workouts and leading you towards your desired destination. Here's to making each session count and every goal achievable!



  1. Plotkin, D. L., Coleman, M., Van Every, D. W., Maldonado, J., Oberlin, D., Israetel, M., Feather, J., Alto, A., Vigotsky, A. D., & Schöenfeld, B. J. (2022b). Progressive overload without progressing load? The effects of load or repetition progression on muscular adaptations. PeerJ, 10, e14142.

Thomas D
Thomas D


Thomas is a dedicated fitness enthusiast with over 12 years of experience in the gym. As a level 2 qualified gym instructor, he combines his passion for working out and nutrition to help others achieve their fitness goals. Thomas stays up to date with the latest fitness research and follows the work of top experts in the field. With a balance of textbook knowledge and real-life experience, he provides practical guidance to help others reach their full potential.

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